• vowel chart


    Phonology refers to the sound system of a language and the rules that govern the sound combinations.  Although it is considered a substrate of a specific language, it is often treated under the realm of speech sound production skills.

    Phonological Processes:

    A phonological process is a typical error pattern used by all children to simplify adult speech they hear but as of yet, are unable to produce due to the constraints of their developing oral-motor structures.  The use of phonological processes should naturally fade as a child’s speech sound development progresses throughout the pre-school years.

    Phonological Process Disorder:

    Sometimes a child continues to use phonological processes even after they are able to produce sounds/words correctly because they are unaware of the error pattern.  If a child is using several phonological processes, it can significantly impact speech intelligibility.  These patterns become part of a child’s automatic speech production patterns and may require direct instruction to correct.  The presence of phonological processes can have a significant impact on a student's overall speech intelligibility. 

    The following are descriptions of some of the most common phonological processes:

    Cluster Reduction: Omitting one of the sounds from a consonant blend.  

    Ex. pider/spider, top/stop, pane/plane.

    Final Consonant Deletion: Omitting the final consonant sound in words.

    Ex. she/sheep, cow/couch.

    Fronting:  When a child is fronting, he/she is producing the k/g/ing sounds with sounds produced in the front of the mouth (most commonly t/d).  

    Ex. tat/cat, dod/dog.

    Stopping: Some speech sounds are produced by using a long stream of air, this includes “sh”, “f”, “s”, “v”, and “z”.   When a child is "stopping" their sounds, they are substituting these long sounds for a short sound such as a “p” “t” or “b”.   

    Ex. tun/sun, bacume/vacume.

    Gliding:  Gliding occurs when the “w” or “y” sounds are being substituted for the  ‘“l” and “r” sounds.   Ex. yeaf/leaf, wed/red.